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A – Anchorage
The anchorage point must withstand at least the load specified in the connection (C) user manual. It can be 9kN, 10kN, 12kN or even 15kN. To be sure that an anchor point is approved for all connections, choose one that is certified according to the European standard EN 795. EN 795 always meets the strictest requirements.
See our anchor points here.
- EN 795 Type A - Permanent anchors.
- EN 795 Type B - Temporary anchors.
- EN 795 Type C - Permanent horizontal cable lifeline systems.
- EN 795 Type D - Permanent horizontal rail lifeline systems.
- EN 795 Type E - Counterweight anchors.
EN 795 is also prerequisite to CEN/TS 16415:2013; which is a certification that allows an anchor to be used by more than one user at a time.
Note: The EU has decided that only temporary anchor points EN795 are counted as personal protective equipment, ie Type B and E, and these must therefore be CE approved. This means that all permanent anchor points EN795 Type A, C and D can not be CE approved as it is not counted as personal protective equipment but is considered to be part of a structure / building. There will be a new standard for permanent anchorages, EN 17235, but when it will become official and come into force is not yet clear.
B - Fall Arrest Harness
The fall arrest harness (also called full body harness) provides the necessary body support with straps attached around the user and, in case of a fall, distributes the energy over the upper thighs, the loins, the chest and the shoulders. The attachment point for your energy absorbing connection should be in the D-ring on the back or chest. The attachment point for the positioning lanyard may be on the waist. Whether you use the harness four or eight hours a day, it must be fitted correctly to provide protection and comfort. Harnesses with quick buckles are always preferred as it is quick and easy to put on. Harnesses with padding on the shoulders, legs and hip distributes pressure and gives the worker greater comfort during hours of use. Falling and hanging in a fall arrest harness may cause suspension trauma, which can lead to serious injuries and even deaths.
Read more about suspension trauma here.
C - Connection
The connection is installed between your fall arrest harness and the anchor point. Without exception, an energy absorbing connection shall be used where there is a risk of falling. In case of a fall, the forces on the body must be limited, thus all connections used in fall hazard environments must be equipped with an energy absorbing function that reduces the arrest force to a maximum specified in the EN-standard. Common examples of energy absorbing connections are fall arrest lanyards, fall arrest blocks and fall arrest kits on rope.
When using connections horizontally, connections specially certified for horizontal use and sharp edges are required.
Read more about sharp edges here.
- EN 353-2 - Fall arrest kit
The fall arrest kit has a rope grab sliding on a rope, and in case of a fall the rope grab brakes and stops the fall. Suitable for work on most types of roofs as well as vertical climbing in ladders.
- EN 360 - Fall arrest block
The fall arrest block is a connection with a self-retracting lanyard or cable. Fall arrest blocks can be used in many applications, but are used primarily to provide mobility and protect the worker in vertical work. Fall arrest blocks are normally only approved for use vertically at the maximum angle specified in the manual, usually 20-30 degrees. For horizontal use, select a fall arrest block that is approved for horizontal use.
- EN 355 - Fall arrest lanyard
The fall arrest lanyard is a connection with energy absorbing function and has a maximum of 2 meters working length. There are fall arrest lanyards with single or double lanyards. Double fall arrest lanyards are common when climbing in towers and ladders.
- EN 358 - Positioning lanyard
A Positioning lanyard is a connection without energy absorbing function, and is therefore not allowed to use where there is a risk of a fall. Positioning lanyards are used as a support / positioning when climbing in towers and ladders. Many positioning lanyards are also classified as temporary horizontal lifeline EN795.
- EN 362- Connectors, carabiners, hooks
Openable device used to connect components, which enables the user to assemble a system in order to link himself/herself directly or indirectly to an anchor point.
- EN 354 - Lanyards
Flexible connection element or component of a personal fall arrest system with at least two terminations, with or without a length adjustment device, e.g. Extension lanyard.
- EN 12841 - Rope adjustment devices for Rope Access
Rope access system that enables the user to get to and from the workplace in tension or suspension in such a way that a free fall is preventable or arrestable. Rope access systems always include a working line for movement by means of ascenders and descenders, combined with a safety line equipped with a fall-arrest device that can intervene in case of failure of the working line.
Type A – Safety line adjustment device, e.g. Rope Grab Goblin
Type B – Working line ascender
Type C – Working line descender
D - Rescue
Rescue requires knowledge and equipment suitable for the task. When possible, rescues should always be performed from a distance, it is always the preferred method. Rescue is an essential feature of your fall protection program, and there must be rescue equipment and trained personnel in place to handle the task. Rescue equipment is a critical part in an emergency situation, and is used to hoist up or down a person. If you manage the task quickly and efficiently, it often limits very serious injuries. The fact is that the longer a person is hanging in the harness or is stuck somewhere, the worse the damage tend to be. The choice of rescue and evacuation equipment depends on the workplace, type of job and available personnel.
Certifications EN 341:2011
Type 1: Automatic descender device with a breaking system that does not require an intervention by the user once the descent has commenced.
Type 2: Manually operated descender device with a breaking system that requires an intervention by the user.
Class A: Descent energy W up to 7,5 x 106 J.
Class B: Descent energy W up to 1,5 x 106 J.
Class C: Descent energy W up to 0,5 x 106 J.
Class D: For only one descent. Descent energy depends on the maximum descent height and the maximum rated load.
- EN 341 Type 1 Class A – Automatic descender device
Automatic descender device with a breaking system that does not require an intervention by the user once the descent has started. The device includes a line, by which persons can, at a limited velocity, rescue themselves or others from a higher to a lower position in such way that a free fall is prevented. See for example, Rescue/Evacuation kit ABS 3 WH.
- EN 341 Type 2 Class A – Manual descender device
Manually operated device with a breaking system that requires an intervention by the user. The device includes a line, by which persons can, at a limited velocity, rescue themselves or others from a higher to a lower position in such way that a free fall is prevented. See for example, Descender Giant.
- EN 1496 Type A – Lifting device for rescue
Component of a rescue system by which a person is lifted by a rescuer. See for example, Winch Carol.
- EN 1496 Type B – Lifting device for rescue
Rescue lifting device with an additional hand-operated lowering function intended for lowering a person over a distance limited to 2 m, e. g. to avoid an obstruction. See for example, Fall Arrest Block 20m with retrieval winch.
- EN 1497 – Rescue harnesses
Rescue equipment that the user put on himself. It may be full-body harness that wears as a standard harness, or a half-harness that is intended for emergency use only. See, for example, Rescue Triangle.
- EN 1498 – Rescue loops
Rescue equipment that the rescuer puts on the injured person in a rescue situation. See, for example, Evacuation Triangle Angel.
Rescue in confined spaces
Confined spaces are one of the most demanding rescue environments. Lack of space and complicated openings can give emergency workers problems to access. At the same time, such situations also involve problems with insufficient ventilation or hazardous air that requires immediate rescue. A person who is without oxygen for four minutes usually dies or suffers brain damages. Because the rescue type is so critical, the attempts to rescue are sometimes poorly planned. A large portion of deaths during work in confined spaces are directly related to the lack of proper rescue equipment and/or rescue training. Proper rescue equipment and relevant training are absolutely essential in order to safely perform a quick and effective rescue operation.
See our products for rescue in confined spaces here.
See our courses here.
Make sure that there is a rescue plan when using fall arrest equipment
Falling and hanging in a fall arrest harness may cause suspension trauma, which can lead to serious injuries or even death. It is therefore of the utmost importance that there are pre-planned procedures for how a quick and safe rescue operation should be carried out.